In the early days green coffee beans were roasted in frying pans. As often the outside was burnt while the inside was still raw, the next innovation was to roast them in little cylinders that could be turned around by a crank; just like the lotto machine. This way the beans could be roasted evenly.

Roasted coffee beans

Roasted coffee beans

Today, coffee beans are roasted in large metal machines (drum roasters).

And as time progressed more and more private industry appeared, turning the coffee production into a major industry.